Wednesday, March 22, 2006


Two days ago, the Egyptian daily El Masry El Yom published the first half of this interview with a founding member of the Muslim Brotherhood, about the relationship between the brotherhood and the revolution, announcing that the rest of it would be published the following day. Yesterday's edition appeared with no trace or even mention of the unfinished interview. Was it censorship from above? Was it self-censorship? Or was the paper paying heed to angry Nasserists? Nobody knows. None of us know our rights and obligations as citizens of our country. I would be impressed to meet anyone who has actually read a copy of the constitution, I personally have never read it, or seen it for that matter. And even if you do know your constitution, the law doesn't really matter in they eyes of the enacted emergency laws.

Another case of self-censorship was the Grand Imam of Al Azhar. At the beginning of the "cartoon war" he gave reasonable statements to downplay the original act of provocation and put it in its suitable place. Soon after however, he succumbed to pressures and criticisms coming from all different directions and was seen on national television leading a demonstration in the streets against the cartoons.

Also there is our Grand Mufti Ali Gomaa, who appears to be reasonable and moderate to anyone who hears him speak, and who recently gave the welcome statement that Sufism (Islamic mysticism) may contain the answer to our problems. Suddenly, and as if to dispel harmful rumors in our part of the world that the entrusted interpreter of the word of God is open-minded, I read yesterday that he proclaimed as haram (forbidden by God) the decorative adornment of houses with statues. Once again, the root of all intransigence in the three Abrahamic religions: the archaic concept of Idolatry.

Those of us who have brains are afraid to use them. And those of us who use them make it a point to conceal them. Meanwhile the only ones who are stepping into the void, besides the organized groups of religious fundamentalism, are the Nasserist opportunists* (* the Nasserists, not Baheyya) who are trying to re-write history.

It's an Orwellian state of total intellectual confusion. And I for one find this very depressing.


James Fletcher Baxter said...

The missing element in every human 'solution' is
an accurate definition of the creature.

The way we define 'human' determines our view
of self, others, relationships, institutions, life, and
future. Important? Only the Creator who made us
in His own image is qualified to define us accurately.
Choose wisely...there are results.

Many problems in human experience are the result of
false and inaccurate definitions of humankind premised
in man-made religions and humanistic philosophies.

Each individual human being possesses a unique, highly
developed, and sensitive perception of diversity. Thus
aware, man is endowed with a natural capability for enact-
ing internal mental and external physical selectivity.
Quantitative and qualitative choice-making thus lends
itself as the superior basis of an active intelligence.

Human is earth's Choicemaker. His title describes
his definitive and typifying characteristic. Recall
that his other features are but vehicles of experi-
ence intent on the development of perceptive
awareness and the following acts of decision and
choice. Note that the products of man cannot define
him for they are the fruit of the discerning choice-
making process and include the cognition of self,
the utility of experience, the development of value-
measuring systems and language, and the accultur-
ation of civilization.

The arts and the sciences of man, as with his habits,
customs, and traditions, are the creative harvest of
his perceptive and selective powers. Creativity, the
creative process, is a choice-making process. His
articles, constructs, and commodities, however
marvelous to behold, deserve neither awe nor idol-
atry, for man, not his contrivance, is earth's own
highest expression of the creative process.

Human is earth's Choicemaker. The sublime and
significant act of choosing is, itself, the Archimedean
fulcrum upon which man levers and redirects the
forces of cause and effect to an elected level of qual-
ity and diversity. Further, it orients him toward a
natural environmental opportunity, freedom, and
bestows earth's title, The Choicemaker, on his
singular and plural brow.

Human is earth's Choicemaker. Psalm 25:12 He is by
nature and nature's God a creature of Choice - and of
Criteria. Psalm 119:30,173 His unique and definitive
characteristic is, and of Right ought to be, the natural
foundation of his environments, institutions, and re-
spectful relations to his fellow-man. Thus, he is orien-
ted to a Freedom whose roots are in the Order of the

Let us proclaim it. Behold!
The Season of Generation-Choicemaker Joel 3:14 KJV


Elinore said...

In the event you are serious when you say you've never read Egypt's consitution, here it is, (but I think Article 76 was amended in 2005):

(After the Amendments Ratified on May 22, 1980 Referendum - Partial Reproduction)
The Amendment Issue of the Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt

The Head of the State...
Taking into account the results of the referendum on the amendment of the Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt conducted on May 22, 1980;

The public consensus to amend the Constitution;
And cognizant of article 189 of the Constitution;
Hereby issues the amendment of the Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt according to what has been agreed upon at the referendum, to be put into effect as of the date the results of the referendum were announced.

Mohamed Anwar El Sadat

(Cairo-Ragab 7, 1400 Hijra-May 22, 1980 A.C.)


We, the people of Egypt, who have been toiling on this great land since the dawn of history and the beginning of civilisation:
We, the people working in Egypt's villages, cities, plants, centres of education, industry and in any field of work which contributes to create life on its soil or which plays a part in the hounour of defending this land; We, the people who believe in our immortal and spiritual heritage, and who are confident in our profound faith, and cherish the honour of man and of humanity; We, the people, who in addition to shouldering the trust of history, carry the responsibility of great present and future objectives whose seeds are embedded in the long and arduous struggle, and which hosted the flags of freedom, socialism and unity along the path of the great march of the Arab nation;
We, the Egyptian people, in the name of God and by His assistance, pledge indefinitely and unconditionally to exert every effort to realise:


Peace to our world:
being determined that peace should be based on justice, and that the political and social progress of all peoples can only be realised through the freedom of these peoples and their independent will, and that any civilisation is not worthy of its name unless it is free form exploitation whatever its form.


the hope of our Arab Nation, being convinced that Arab Unity is a call of history and of the future, and a demand of destiny; and that it cannot materialise except through an Arab Nation, capable of warding off any threat, whatever the source or the pretexts for such a threat.


The constant development of life in our nation:
Being convinced that the true challenge confronting nations is the realization of progress and that such progress does not occur automatically, or through slogans; but that the driving force behind it is the release of the potentials of creativity and inspiration in our people, who have asserted at all times their contribution to civilization and to humanity through work alone.
Our people have passed through successive experiences, meantime offering rich experiences on the national and international level and being guided by them, which ultimately took shape in the July 23 Revolution of 1952.
This Revolution was brought about by the alliance of the working forces of our militant people who were able, through profound and refined consciousness, to retina their original character, but at the same time move forward in a bid to realist full integration between science and faith, between political and social freedom, between national independence and social affiliation; and to participate in the worldwide struggle for the liberation of man, on the political, economic, cultural and ideological levels, and in the struggle against the forces of regression, domination an exploitation.


Freedom for the humanity of the Egyptian man:
Realising that man's humanity and dignity are the lights which guide and direct the course of the great development of mankind for the realisation of its supreme ideal.
Man's dignity is a natural reflection of the nation's dignity, now that the individual is the cornerstone in the edifice of the homeland, the land that derives its strength and prestige from the value of man and his education.
The sovereignty of law is not only a guarantee for the freedom of the individual alone, but is also at the same time the sole basis for the legality of authority.
The alliance of the active popular powers is not a means for social strife leading towards historical development.
In this modern age, it is a safety valve, protecting the unity of working powers in the country and eliminating, through democracy, and contradictions.

We, the people of Egypt, out of determination, confidence and faith in all national and international responsibilities, and in acknowledgment of God's right and His Heavenly Messages, and in the right of the country and nation, as well as of the principle and responsibility of mankind, and in the name of the Almighty and His assistance, declare on the 11 Th. of September, 1971 that we accept, and grant, to ourselves this Constitution, affirming our determination to defend and protect it, and asserting our respect for it in letter and spirit.
Of The Arab Republic of Egypt

Article 1
The Arab Republic of Egypt is a democratic, socialist State based on the alliance of the working forces of the people.
The Egyptian people are part of the Arab Nation and work for the realisation of its comprehensive unity.
Article 2
Islam is the religion of the state and Arabic its official language.
Islamic jurisprudence is the principal source of legislation.
Article 3
Sovereignty is for the people alone they are the source of authority.
The people shall exercise and protect this sovereignty, and safeguard national unity in the manner specified in the Constitution.
Article 4
The economic foundation of the Arab Republic of Egypt is a socialist democratic system based on sufficiency and justice in a manner preventing exploitation, conducive to liquidation of income differences, protecting legitimate earnings, and guaranteeing the equity of the distribution of public duties and responsibilities.
Article 5
The political system of the Arab Republic of Egypt is a multiparty one, within the framework of the basic elements and principles of the Egyptian society as stipulated in the Constitution (Political parties are regulated by law).
Article 6
The Egyptian nationality is defined by the law.
Social and Moral Constituents Article 7
Social solidarity is the basis of the society.
Article 8
The State shall guarantee equality of opportunity to all citizens.
Article 9
The family is the basis of the society founded on religion, morality and patriotism.
The State is keen to preserve the genuine character of the Egyptian family-with what it embodies of values and traditions-while affirming and developing this character in the relations within the Egyptian society.
Article 10
The State shall guarantee the protection of motherhood and childhood, take care of children and youth and provide the suitable conditions for the development of their talents.
Article 11
The State shall guarantee the proper coordination between the duties of woman towards the family and her work in the society, considering her equal with man in the fields of political, social, cultural and economic life without violation of the rules of Islamic jurisprudence.
Article 12
The society shall be committed to safeguarding and protecting morals, promoting the genuine Egyptian traditions and abiding by the high standards of religious education, moral and national values, historical heritage of the people, scientific facts, socialist conduct and public morality within the limits of the law.
The State is committed to abiding by these principles and promoting them.
Article 13
Work is right, a duty and an honour ensured by the State.
Workers who excel in their field of work shall receive the appreciation of the State and the society.
No work shall be imposed on the citizens, except by virtue of the law, for the performance of a public service and in return for a fair remuneration.
Article 14
Public offices are the right of all citizens and an assignment for their occupants in the service of the people.
The State guarantees their (the occupants) protection and the performance of their duties in safeguarding the interests of the people.
They may not be dismissed by other than the disciplinary way, except in the cases specified by the law.
Article 15
The war veterans, those injured in war or because of it, and the wives and children of those killed shall have priority in work opportunities according to the law.
Article 16
The State shall guarantee cultural, social and health services, and work to ensure them for the villages in particular in an easy and regular manner in order to raise their standard.
Article 17
The State- shall guarantee social and health insurance services and all the citizens have the right to pensions in cases of incapacity, unemployment and old-age, in accordance with the law.
Article 18
Education is a right guaranteed by the State.
It is obligatory in the primary stage and the State shall work to extend obligation to other stages.
The State shall supervise all branches of education and guarantee the independence of universities and scientific research centres, with a view to linking all this with the requirements of society and production.
Article 19
Religious education shall be a principal subject in the courses of general education.
Article 20
Education in the State educational institutions shall be free of charge in its various stages.
Article 21
Combating illiteracy shall be a national duty for which all the people's energies should be mobilized.
Article 22
The institution of civil titles shall be prohibited.
CHAPTER II Economic Constituents Article 23
The national economy shall be organised in accordance with a comprehensive development plan which ensures
raising the national income, fair distribution, raising the standard of living, eliminating unemployment, increasing
work opportunities, connecting wages with production, fixing a minimum and a maximum limit for wages in a
manner which guarantees lessening the disparities between incomes.
Article 24
The people shall control all the means of production and direct their surplus in accordance with the development
plan laid down by the State.
Article 25
Every citizen shall have a share in the national revenue to be defined by the law in accordance with his work or his
unexploiting ownership
Article 26
The workers shall have a share in the management and profits of the projects. They are committed to the
development of production and the implementation of the plan in their production units, in accordance with the law.
protecting the means of production is a national duty.
Workers shall be represented on the boards of directors of the public sector units by at least 50% of the number of
members of these boards. The law shall guarantee for the small farmers and small craftsmen 80% of the
membership on the boards of directors of the agricultural CO-operatives and industrial cooperatives.
Article 27
Beneficiaries shall participate in the management of the services projects of public interest and their supervision in
accordance with the law.
Article 28
The State shall look after the CO-operative establishments in all their forms and encourage handicrafts with a
view to developing production and raising income.
The State shall endeavour to consolidate the agricultural cooperatives according to modern scientific bases.
Article 29
Ownership shall be under the supervision of the people and the protection of the State.
There are three kinds:
public ownership, cooperative ownership and private ownership.
Article 30
Public ownership is the ownership of the people and it is confirmed by the continuous consolidation of the public
The Public sector shall be the vanguard of progress in all spheres and shall assume the main responsibility in the
development plan.
Article 31
Co-operative ownership is the ownership of the co-operative societies. The law guarantees its protection and
Article 32
Private ownership shall be represented by the unexploiting capital. The law organises the performance of its social
function in the service of national economy within the framework of the development plan without deviation or
exploitation. it may not be in conflict, in the ways of its use, with the general welfare of the people.
Article 33
Public ownership shall have its sanctity, and its protection and consolidation is the duty of every citizen in
accordance with the law, as it is considered the mainstay of the strength of the homeland, a basis for the socialist
system and a source of prosperity of the people.
Article 34
Private ownership shall be safeguarded and may not be put under sequestration except in the cases specified in the
law and with a judicial decision. It may not be expropriated except for the general good and against a fair
compensation in accordance with the law. The right of inheritance is guaranteed in it.
Article 35
Nationalisation shall not be allowed except for considerations of public interest, in accordance with a law and
against a compensation.
Article 36
General sequestration of funds shall be prohibited.
Private sequestration shall not be allowed except with a judicial decision.
Article 37
The law shall fix the maximum limit of land ownership with a view to protecting the farmer and the agricultural
labourer from exploitation and asserting the authority of the alliance of the people's working powers at the level of
the village.
Article 38
The tax system shall be based on social justice.
Article 39
Saving is a national duty protected, encouraged and organised by the State.

Article 40
All citizens are equal before the law.
They have equal public rights and duties without discrimination between them due to race, ethnic origin, language,
religion or creed.
Article 41
Individual freedom is a natural right and shall not be touched.
Except in cases of a flagrant delicate no person may be arrested, inspected, detained or his freedom restricted or
prevented from free movement except by an or necessitated by investigations and preservation of the security of
the society.
This order shall be given by the competent judge or the Public Prosecution in accordance with the provisions of the
The law shall determine the period of custody.
Article 42
Any person arrested, detained or his freedom restricted shall be treated in the manner concomitant with the
preservation of his dignity.
No physical or moral harm is to be inflicted upon him.
He may not be detained or imprisoned except in places defined by laws organising prisons.
If a confession is proved to have been made by a person under any of the aforementioned forms of duress or
coercion, it shall be considered invalid and futile.
Article 43
Any medical or scientific experiment may not be undergone on any person without his free consent.
Article 44
Homes shall have their sanctity and they may not be entered or inspected except by a causal judicial warrant
prescribed by the law.
Article 45
The law shall protect the inviolability of the private life of citizens.
Correspondence, wires, telephone calls an other means of communication shall have their own sanctity and secrecy
and may not be confiscated or monitored except by a causal judicial warrant and for a definite period according to
the provisions of the law.
Article 46
The State shall guarantee the freedom of belief and the freedom of practice of religious rites.
Article 47
Freedom of opinion is guaranteed.
Every individual has the right to express his opinion and to publicise it verbally or in writing or by photography or
by other means within the limits of the law.
Self-criticism and constructive criticism is the guarantee for the safety of the national structure.
Article 48
Freedom of the press, printing, publication and mass media shall be guaranteed.
Censorship on newspapers is forbidden as well as notifying, suspending or cancelling them by administrative
In a state of emergency or in time of war a limited censorship may be imposed on the newspapers, publications and
mass media in matters related to public safety or purposes of national security in accordance with the law.
Article 49
The State shall guarantee the freedom of scientific research and literary, artistic and cultural invention and
provide the necessary means for its realisation.
Article 50
No citizen may be prohibited from residing in any place and no citizen may be forced to reside in a particular place,
except in the cases defined by the law.
Article 51
No citizen may be deported from the country or prevented from returning to it.
Article 52
Citizens shall have the right to permanent or temporary immigration.
The law shall regulate this right and the measures and conditions of immigration and leaving the country.
Article 53
The right to political asylum shall be guaranteed by the State for every foreigner persecuted for defending the
peoples' interests, human rights, peace or justice.
The extradition of political refugees is prohibited.
Article 54
Citizens shall have the right to peaceable and unarmed private assembly, without the need for prior notice.
Security men should not attend these private meetings.
Public meetings, processions and gatherings are allowed within the limits of the law.
Article 55
Citizens shall have the right to form societies as defined in the law.
The establishment of societies whose activities are hostile to the social system, clandestine or have a military
character is prohibited.
Article 56
The creation of syndicates and unions on a democratic basis is a right guaranteed by law, and should have a moral
The law regulates the participation of syndicates and unions in carrying out the social programmes and plans,
raising the standard of efficiency, consolidating the socialist behavior among their members, and safeguarding
their funds.
They are responsible for questioning their members about their behavior in exercising their activities according to
certain codes of morals, and for defending the rights and liberties of their members as defined in the law.
Article 57
Any assault on individual freedom or on the inviolability of private life of citizens and any other public rights and
liberties guaranteed by the Constitution and the law shall be considered a crime, whose criminal and civil lawsuit is
not liable to prescription.
The State shall grant a fair compensation to the victim of such an assault.
Article 58
The defense of the motherland is a sacred duty, and conscription is obligatory in accordance with the law.
Article 59
Safeguarding, consolidating and preserving the socialist gains is a national duty.
Article 60
Protecting national unity and keeping State secrets is the duty of every citizen.
Article 61
Payment of taxes and public imports is a duty, in accordance with the law.
Article 62
Citizens shall have the right to vote, nominate and express their opinions in referendums according to the
provisions of the law.
Their participation in public life is a national duty.
Article 63
Every individual has the right to address public authorities in writing and with his own signature.
Addressing public authorities should not be in the name of groups, with the exception of disciplinary organs and
moral personalities.

Article 64
Sovereignty of the law shall be the basis of rule in the State.
Article 65
The State shall be subject to law.
The independence and immunity of the judiciary are two basic guarantees to safeguard rights and liberties.
Article 66
Penalty shall be personal.
There shall be no crime or penalty except by virtue of the law.
No penalty shall be inflicted except by a judicial sentence.
Penalty shall be inflicted only for acts committed subsequent to the promulgation of the law prescribing them.
Article 67
Any defendant is innocent until he is proved guilty before a legal court, in which he is granted the right to defend
Every person accused of a crime must be provided with counsel for his defense.
Article 68
The right to litigation is inalienable for all, and every citizen has the right to refer to his competent judge.
The State shall guarantee the accessibility of the judicature organs to litigants, and the rapidity of statuting on
Any provision in the law stipulating the immunity of any act or administrative decision from the control of the
judicature is prohibited.
Article 69
The right of defense in person or by mandate is guaranteed.
The Law shall grant the financially incapable citizens the means to resort to justice and defend their rights.
Article 70
No penal lawsuit shall be sued except by an order from a judicature organ and in cases defined by the law.
Article 71
Any person arrested or detained should be informed, forthwith with the reasons for his arrest or detention.
He has the right to communicate, inform, and ask the help of anyone as prescribed in the law.
He must be faced, as soon as possible, with the charges directed against him.
Any person may lodge a complaint to the courts against any measure taken to restrict his individual freedom.
The law regulates the right of complaint in a manner ensuring a ruling regarding it within a definite period, or else
release is imperative.
Article 72
Sentences shall be passed and executed in the name of the people.
Likewise, refraining to execute sentences or obstructing them on the part of the concerned civil servants Is
considered a crime punishable by law.
In this case, those whom the sentence is in favour of, have the right to sue a direct penal lawsuit before the
competent court.

Part Five
System of Government
CHAPTER ONE The Head of State Article 73
The Head of State is the President of the Republic.
He shall assert the sovereignty of the people, respect the Constitution and the supremacy of the law, safeguard the
national unity and the socialist gains, and maintain the boundaries between authorities in a manner to ensure that
each shall perform its role in the national action.
Article 74
If any danger threatens the national unity or the safety of the motherland or obstructs the constitutional role of the
State institutions, the President of the Republic shall take urgent measures to face this danger, direct a statement
to the people and conduct a referendum on these measures within sixty days of its adoption.
Article 75
The person to be elected President of the Republic must be an Egyptian born to Egyptian parents and enjoy civil
and political rights.
His age must not be less than 40
Gregorian years.
Article 76
The People's Assembly shall nominate the President of the Republic.
The nomination shall be referred to the people for a plebiscite.
The nomination to the post of President of the Republic shall be made in the People's Assembly upon the proposal
of at least one third of its member.
The candidate who wins two-thirds of the votes of the Assembly members shall be referred to the people for a
If none of the candidates obtains the said majority the nomination process shall be repeated two days after the first
The candidate winning the votes with an absolute majority of the Assembly members shall be referred to the
citizens for a plebiscite.
The candidate shall be considered President of the Republic when he obtains an absolute majority of the votes cast
in the plebiscite.
If the candidate does not obtain this majority, the Assembly shall nominate another candidate and the same
procedure shall be followed.
Article 77
The term of the Presidency is six Gregorian years starting from the date of the announcement of the result of the
The President of the Republic may be re-elected for other successive terms.
Article 78
Procedures for the choice of a new President of the Republic shall begin sixty days before the expiration of the
term of the President in office.
The new President shall be selected at least one week before the expiration of the term.
Should this term expire without the choice of the new President being made for any reason whatsoever, the former
President shall continue to exercise his functions until his successor is elected.
Article 79
Before exercising his powers, the President shall take the following oath before the People's Assembly.
"I swear by Almighty God to uphold the Republican system with loyality, to respect the Constitution and the law,
to look after the interests of the people fully and to safeguard the independence and territorial integrity of the
Article 80
The salary of the President of the Republic shall be fixed by law.
Any amandment in the salary shall not come into force during the Presidential term in which it is decided upon.
The President of the Republic may not receive any other salary or remuneration.
Article 81
During his term the President of the Republic may not exercise any free profession or undertake any commercial,
financial or industrial activity.
Nor may he acquire or take on lease any State property, sell to or exchange with the State any property of his
Article 82
If on account of any temporary obstacle the President of the Republic is unable to carry out his functions, he shall
delegate his powers to a vice-president.
Article 83
In case of resignation, the President shall address the letter of resignation to the People's Assembly.
Article 84
In case of the vacancy of the Presidential Office or the permanent disability of the President of the Republic, the
President of the People's Assembly shall temporarily assume the Presidency; and, if at that time, the People's
Assembly is dissolved, the President of the Supreme Constitutional Court shall take over the Presidency, however,
on condition that neither one shall nominate himself for the Presidency.
The People's Assembly shall then proclaim the vacancy of the office of President.
The President of the Republic shall be chosen within a maximum period of sixty days from the day of the vacancy
of the Presidential Office.
Article 85
Any charge against the President of high treason or of committing a criminal act shall be made upon a proposal by
at least one-third of the members of the People's Assembly.
No impeachment shall be issued except upon the approval of a majority of two-thirds of the Assembly members.
The President shall be suspended from the exercise of his duty as from the issuance of the impeachment.
The Vice-President shall take over the Presidency temporarily until the decision concerning the impeachment is
The President of the Republic shall be tried by a special tribunal set up by law.
The law shall also organise the trial procedures and define the penalty.
If he is found guilty, he shall be relieved of his post, without prejudice to other penalties.
CHAPTER II THE LEGISLATURE The People's Assembly Article 86
The People's Assembly shall exercise the legislative power and approve the general policy of the State, the
general plan of economic and social development and the general budget of the State.
It shall exercise control over the work of the executive authority in the manner prescribed by the Constitution.
Article 87
The law shall determine the constituencies into which the State shall be divided and the number of elected
members of the People's Assembly must be at least 350
persons, of which one half at least must be workers and farmers elected by direct secret public balloting.
The definition of the worker and the farmer shall be made by law.
The President of the Republic may appoint a number of members not exceeding ten.
Article 88
The necessary conditions stipulated in the members of the People's Assembly shall be defined by law.
The rules of election and referendum shall be determined by law, while the ballot shall be conducted under the
supervision of members of a judiciary organ.
Article 89
Employees of the State and of the public sector nominate themselves for membership in the People's Assembly.
The member of the people's Assembly shall devote himself to membership in the Assembly except in cases
specified by law.
His post or work shall be held over for him in accordance with the provisions of the law.
Article 90
The member of the People's Assembly shall take the following oath before the Assembly before entering upon his
"I swear by God Almighty, that I shall preserve the safety of the nation and the Republican regime, shall attend to
the interests of the people and shall respect the Constitution and law".
Article 91
Members of the People's Assembly shall receive a remuneration determined by the law.
Article 92
The duration of the People's Assembly term is five Gregorian years from the date of its first meeting.
Elections for renewal of the Assembly shall take place within the sixty days preceding the termination of the term.
Article 93
The People's Assembly shall be the only authority competent to decide upon the validity of its members.
A Court of Causation shall be competent to investigate the validity of contestation presented to the Assembly, on
being referred to it by the President of the Assembly.
The contestation shall be referred to the Court of Cassation within fifteen days as from the date on which the
Assembly was informed of it, while the investigation shall be completed within ninety days from the date on which
the contestation is referred to the Court of Cassation.
The result of the investigation and the decision reached by the Court shall be submitted to the Assembly to decide
upon the validity of the contestation within sixty days from the date of submission of the result of the investigation
to the Assembly.
The membership will not be deemed invalid except by a decision taken by a majority of two-thirds of the Assembly
Article 94
If the seat of a member becomes vacant before the end of his term, a successor shall be elected or appointed to it,
within sixty days from the date of the communication to the Assembly of the occurrence of the vacancy.
The term of the new member shall extend until the end of the term of his predecessor.
Article 95
No member of the People's Assembly shall, during his mandate, purchase or rent any State property; or lease or
sell to the State or barter with it regarding any part of his property, or conclude a contract with the State in his
capacity as entrepreneur, importer or contractor.
Article 96
No membership in the People's Assembly shall be revoked except on the grounds of loss of confidence or status or
of one of the conditions of membership, or the loss of the member's status as a worker or farmer upon which he
was elected or the violation of the member's mandate.
The membership shall be deemed invalid on the grounds of a decision taken by a majority of two-thirds of the
Assembly members.
Article 97
The People's Assembly alone may accept the resignation of its members .
Article 98
Members of the People's Assembly shall not be censured for any opinions or thoughts expressed by them in the
performance of their tasks in the Assembly or its committees.
Article 99
No member of the People's Assembly shall be subject to a criminal prosecution without the permission of the
Assembly except in cases of flagrant delicto.
If the Assembly is not in session, the permission of the President of the Assembly must be taken.
The Assembly must be notified of the measures taken in its first subsequent session.
Article 100
The seat of the People's Assembly shall be Cairo.
However, in exceptional circumstances, it may meet another city, at the request of the President of the Republic or
the majority of the Assembly members.
Any meeting of the Assembly in other than its designated seat is illicit and the resolutions passed in it shall be
considered invalid.
Article 101
The President of the Republic shall convoke the People's Assembly for its ordinary annual session before the
second Thursday of November.
If it is not convoked, the Assembly shall meet, by force of the Constitution, on the said day.
The session of the ordinary meeting shall continue for at least seven months.
Article 102
The President of the Republic may call the People's Assembly to an extraordinary meeting, in case of necessity, or
upon a request signed by a majority of the Assembly members.
The President of the Republic shall announce the dismissal of the extraordinary meeting.
Article 103
The People's assembly shall elect, in the first meeting of its ordinary annual session, a president and a
vice-president for the term of the session.
If the seat of anyone of them is vacated, the Assembly shall elect a replacement, whose term will last until the end
of his predecessors term.
Article 104
The People's Assembly shall lay down its own rules of procedure organising the manner of the fulfilment of its
Article 105
The people's Assembly alone shall be entitled to preserve order inside it.
The President of the Assembly shall be entrusted with this task.
Article 106
The meetings of the People's Assembly shall be public.
However, a meeting in camera may be held at the request of the president of the Republic or of the government or
of its Prime Minister or at least twenty of its members.
The Assembly shall then decide whether the debate on the question submitted to it shall take place in a public
meeting or in a meeting in camera.
Article 107
The meeting of the Assembly shall be considered invalid if the majority of its members are not present.
The resolution of the Assembly shall be adopted by an absolute majority of the attending members, in cases other
than those for which a specific majority is required.
Every article of the draft laws shall be put to a vote.
In case of a tie vote, the question on which the debate had taken place shall be rejected.
Article 108
The president of the Republic shall have the right, in case of necessity or in exceptional cases and on the
authorisation of the People's Assembly upon the approval of a majority of two thirds of its members, to issue
resolutions having the force of law.
The authorisation must be for a limited period of time during which the subjects of the resolutions and the grounds
upon which they are based, must be determined.
The resolutions must be submitted to the People's Assembly in the first meeting after the end of the authorisation
If they are not submitted or if they are submitted and not approved by the Assembly, they shall cease to have the
force of law.
Article 109
The President of the Republic and every member of the People's Assembly shall have the right to propose laws.
Article 110
Every draft law shall be referred to a committee of the Assembly which will study it and submit a report concerning
Draft laws presented by members of the People's Assembly shall not be referred to this committee unless they are
first referred to a special committee which will study them and give an opinion on the suitability of their
consideration by the Assembly and after the Assembly decides to consider them.
Article 111
Every draft law proposed by a member and rejected by the Assembly cannot be presented again in the course of
the same session.
Article 112
The president of the Republic shall have the right to promulgate laws or object to them.
Article 113
If the President of the Republic objects to a draft law ratified by the People's Assembly he shall refer it back to the
Assembly within thirty days from the Assembly's communication of it.
If the draft law is not referred back within this period, it is considered a law shall be promulgated.
If it is referred back to the Assembly on the said date and approved once again by a majority of two- thirds of the
members, it shall be considered a law and shall be promulgated.
Article 114
The people's Assembly shall approve the general plan for economic and social development.
The manner of the preparation of the plan and of its submission to the people's Assembly shall be determined by
Article 115
The draft general budget shall be submitted to the people's Assembly at least two months before the beginning of
the fiscal year.
It shall be considered in effect after approval.
The draft budget shall be voted upon title by title and shall be promulgated by a law.
The people's Assembly may not effect any modification in the draft budget except with the approval of the
In case the ratification of the new budget does not take place before the beginning of the fiscal year, the old budget
shall be acted on pending such ratification.
The manner of the preparation of the budget as well as the determination of the fiscal year shall be determined by
law .
Article 116
The approval of the people's Assembly shell be considered necessary for the transfer of any funds one title of the
budget to another title, as well as for any expenditure not included in it or excess of its estimates, and this shall be
issued by a law.
Article 117
The provisions regulating the budgets and accounts of public organisations and organisms shall be prescribed by
Article 118
The final account of the State budget shall be submitted to the people's Assembly within a period not exceeding
one year from the date of the expiration of the fiscal year.
It shall be voted-upon title by title and issued by a law.
The annual report of the Central Agency for Accounting and its observations must be submitted to the People's
The Assembly has the right to demand from the Central Agency for Accounting any data or other pertinent
Article 119
The imposition, modification or abolition of general taxes cannot be effected except in the cases decreed by law.
No one may be exempted from their payment except in the cases specified by law.
No one may be asked to pay additional taxes or imposts except in the cases specified by law.
Article l20
The basic rules for collection of public funds and the procedure for their disbursement shall be regulated.
Article l21
The Executive Authority shall not contract a loan or bind itself to a project entailing expenditure of funds from the
State Treasury in the course of a subsequent period, except with the approval of the People's Assembly.
Article 122
The rules governing the granting of salaries, pensions, indemnities, subsides and bonuses from the state Treasury
shall be determined by law which shall also regulate the cases excepted from these rules, and the authorities
charged with their application.
Article 123
The rules and procedures for granting concessions relating to investment of the sources of natural wealth and of
public utilities shall be determined by law; disposal, free of charge, of real estate properties belonging to the State
or the ceding of moveable properties of the State and the rules and problems relating to them shall also be
determined by law.
Article 124
Every member of the People's Assembly shall be entitled to address questions to the Prime Minister or any of his
deputies or the Ministers or their deputies concerning matters within their jurisdiction.
The Prime Minister, his deputies, the Ministers and the persons they delegate on their behalf shall answer the
questions put to them by members.
The member may withdraw his question at any time; this same question may not be transformed into an
interpellation in the same session.
Article 125
Every member of the People's Assembly shall be entitled to address Inteprellations to the Prime Minister or his
deputies or the Ministers or their deputies concerning matters within their jurisdiction.
Debate on an interpllation shall take place at least seven days after its submission, except in the cases of urgency
as decided by the Assembly and with the government's consent.
Article 126
The Ministers shall be responsible collectively for the general policy of the State before the People's Assembly;
also every Minister shall be responsible for the acts of his Ministry.
The People's Assembly may decide to withdraw its confidence from any of the Prime Minister's deputies or from
many of the Ministers or their deputies.
A motion of no confidence should not be submitted except after an interpellation.
Such a motion should be proposed by one-tenth of the Assembly's members.
The Assembly should not decide on such a motion until after at least three days from the date of its presentation.